Clinical Practice, Credentialing, and Reporting Guidelines

The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Workforce on Evidence Based Surgery has developed evidence-based guidelines to provide practical assistance to the STS membership. Thorough research of each guideline topic is completed through an exhaustive review of clinical information. The conclusions and recommendations are based on an exhaustive review of scientific evidence published in the medical literature.


Clinical Practice Guidelines App

An iPhone/iPad app is now available to access STS clinical practice guidelines on the go. Access the app by searching for “STS Clinical Practice Guidelines App”  in the Apple App Store or click the button below from your mobile device now.


Adult Cardiac Surgery

Antibiotic Prophylaxis

Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Cardiac Surgery, Part I: Duration
A report from The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Workforce on Evidence Based Surgery
Fred H. Edwards, MD, Richard M. Engelman, MD, Peter Houck, MD, David M. Shahian, MD and Charles R. Bridges, MD

© 2005 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons


Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Cardiac Surgery, Part II: Antibiotic Choice
A report from The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Workforce on Evidence Based Medicine
Richard Engelman, MD, David Shahian, MD, Richard Shemin, MD, T. Sloane Guy, MD, Dale Bratzler, DO, MPH, Fred Edwards, MD, Marshall Jacobs, MD, Hiran Fernando, MD, Charles Bridges, MD, ScD

© 2007 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons

Aortic Valve and Ascending Aorta

Aortic Valve and Ascending Aorta Guidelines for Management and Quality Measures
A Special Report from The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Aortic Valve +/- Ascending Aorta Guidelines Task Force
Lars G. Svensson, MD, PhD (Chair), David H. Adams, MD (Vice-Chair), Robert O. Bonow, MD (Vice-Chair), Nicholas T. Kouchoukos, MD (Vice-Chair), D. Craig Miller, MD (Vice-Chair), Patrick T. O’Gara, MD (Vice-Chair), David M. Shahian, MD (Vice-Chair), Hartzell V. Schaff, MD (Vice-Chair), Cary W. Akins, MD, Joseph Bavaria, MD, Eugene H. Blackstone, MD, Tirone E. David, MD, Nimesh D. Desai, MD, PhD, Todd M. Dewey, MD, Richard S. D’Agostino, MD, Thomas G. Gleason, MD, Katherine B. Harrington, MD, Susheel Kodali, MD, Samir Kapadia, MD, Martin B. Leon, MD, Brian Lima, MD, Bruce W. Lytle, MD, Michael J. Mack, MD, T. Brett Reece, MD, George R. Reiss, MD, Eric Roselli, MD, Craig R. Smith, MD, Vinod H. Thourani, MD, E. Murat Tuzcu, MD, John Webb, MD, and Mathew R. Williams, MD

© 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons

Surgical Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation

The Society of Thoracic Surgeons 2017 Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Surgical Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation
Supplemental Materials
Vinay Badhwar, MD, J. Scott Rankin, MD, Ralph J. Damiano, Jr, MD, A. Marc Gillinov, MD, Faisal G. Bakaeen, MD, James R. Edgerton, MD, Jonathan M. Philpott, MD, Patrick M. McCarthy, MD, Steven F. Bolling, MD, Harold G. Roberts, MD, Vinod H. Thourani, MD, Rakesh M. Suri, MD, DPhil, Richard J. Shemin, MD, Scott Firestone, MS, and Niv Ad, MD

© 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons


Guidelines for Reporting Data and Outcomes for the Surgical Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation
A report from The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Workforce on Evidence Based Surgery
Richard J. Shemin, MD, James L. Cox, MD, A. Marc Gillinov, MD, Eugene H. Blackstone, MD, Charles R. Bridges, MD

© 2007 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons

Temperature Management During Cardiopulmonary Bypass

The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, The Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, and The American Society of ExtraCorporeal Technology: Clinical Practice Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Bypass—Temperature Management During Cardiopulmonary Bypass
Richard Engelman, MD, Robert A. Baker, PhD, CCP, Donald S. Likosky, PhD, Alina Grigore, MD, Timothy A. Dickinson, MS, Linda Shore-Lesserson, MD, and John W. Hammon, MD

© 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, Elsevier, and the American Society of ExtraCorporeal Technology

Antiplatelet Drugs in Patients Having Cardiac and Noncardiac Operations

2012 Update to The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Guideline on Use of Antiplatelet Drugs in Patients Having Cardiac and Noncardiac Operations
Victor A. Ferraris, MD, PhD, Sibu P. Saha, MD, MBA, Julie H. Oestreich, PharmD, PhD, Howard K. Song, MD, Todd Rosengart, MD, T. Brett Reece, MD, C. David Mazer, MD, Charles R. Bridges, MD, ScD, George J. Despotis, MD, PhD, Kanae Jointer, BA, and Ellen R. Clough, PhD

© 2012 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons

Gender-Specific Guidelines for CABG

Gender-Specific Practice Guidelines for Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery: Perioperative Management
A report from The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Workforce on Evidence Based Surgery
Fred H. Edwards, MD, Victor A. Ferraris, MD, PhD, David M. Shahian, MD, Eric Peterson, MD, Anthony P. Furnary MD, Constance K. Haan, MD, Charles R. Bridges, MD, ScD

© 2003 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons

Blood Glucose Management

Blood Glucose Management During Adult Cardiac Surgery
Harold L. Lazar, MD, Marie McDonnell, MD, Stuart R. Chipkin, MD, Anthony P. Furnary, MD, Richard M. Engelman, MD, Archana R. Sadhu, MD, Charles R. Bridges, MD, ScD, Constance K. Haan, MD, MS, Rolf Svedjeholm, MD, PhD, Heinrich Taegtmeyer, MD, DPhil, and Richard J. Shemin, MD

© 2009 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons

Endovascular Stent-Grafting Credentialing

STS/AATS Position Statement: Guidelines for Credentialing of Practitioners to Perform Endovascular Stent-Grafting of the Thoracic Aorta
Nicholas T. Kouchoukos, MD (Chair), Joseph E. Bavaria, MD, Joseph S. Coselli, MD, Ralph De La Torre, MD, John S. Ikonomidis, MD, Riyad C. Karmy-Jones, MD, Robert Scott Mitchell, MD, Richard J. Shemin, MD, David Spielvogel, MD, Lars G. Svensson, MD, and Grayson H. Wheatley, MD

© 2006 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons and the American Association for Thoracic Surgery

Reporting Mortality and Morbidity After Cardiac Valve Interventions

Joint STS/AATS/EACTS Report: Guidelines for Reporting Mortality and Morbidity After Cardiac Valve Interventions
Cary W. Akins, MD, D. Craig Miller, MD, Marko I. Turina, MD, Nicholas T. Kouchoukos, MD, Eugene H. Blackstone, MD, Gary L. Grunkemeier, PhD, Johanna J. M. Takkenberg, MD, PhD, Tirone E. David, MD, Eric G. Butchart, MD, David H. Adams, MD, David M. Shahian, MD, Siegfried Hagl, MD, John E. Mayer, Jr., MD, and Bruce W. Lytle, MD

© 2008 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, The American Association for Thoracic Surgery, and The European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery

Blood Conservation

2011 Update to The Society of Thoracic Surgeons and the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists Blood Conservation Clinical Practice Guidelines
A report from The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Blood Conservation Guideline Task Force
Victor A. Ferraris, MD, PhD (Chair), Jeremiah R. Brown, PhD, George J. Despotis, MD, John W. Hammon, MD, T. Brett Reece, MD, Sibu P. Saha, MD, MBA, Howard K. Song, MD, PhD, and Ellen R. Clough, PhD; The Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists Special Task Force on Blood Transfusion: Linda J. Shore-Lesserson, MD, Lawrence T. Goodnough, MD, C. David Mazer, MD, Aryeh Shander, MD, Mark Stafford-Smith, MD, and Jonathan Waters, MD; and The International Consortium for Evidence Based Perfusion: Robert A. Baker, PhD, Dip Perf, CCP (Aus), Timothy A. Dickinson, MS, Daniel J. FitzGerald, CCP, LP, Donald S. Likosky, PhD, and Kenneth G. Shann, CCP

© 2011 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons

Arterial Conduits for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Clinical Practice Guidelines on Arterial Conduits for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting
Supplemental Materials
Gabriel S. Aldea, MD, Faisal G. Bakaeen, MD, Jay Pal, MD, PhD, Stephen Fremes, MD, Stuart J. Head, MD, PhD, Joseph Sabik, MD, Todd Rosengart, MD, A. Pieter Kappetein, MD, PhD, Vinod H. Thourani, MD, Scott Firestone, MS, and John D. Mitchell, MD

© 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons


General Thoracic Surgery

Diagnosis and Staging of Patients With Esophageal Cancer

The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Staging of Patients With Esophageal Cancer
Thomas K. Varghese, Jr, MD, MS, Wayne L. Hofstetter, MD, Nabil P. Rizk, MD, Donald E. Low, MD, Gail E. Darling, MD, Thomas J. Watson, MD, John D. Mitchell, MD, and Mark J. Krasna, MD

© 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons

Multimodality Treatment for Cancer of the Esophagus and Gastroesophageal Junction

The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Practice Guidelines on the Role of Multimodality Treatment for Cancer of the Esophagus and Gastroesophageal Junction
Alex G. Little, MD, Antoon E. Lerut, MD, PhD, David H. Harpole, MD, Wayne L. Hofstetter, MD, John D. Mitchell, MD, Nasser K. Altorki, MD, and Mark J. Krasna, MD

© 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons

Management of Barrett’s Esophagus with High-Grade Dysplasia

Management of Barrett’s Esophagus with High-Grade Dysplasia
Hiran C. Fernando, MD, Sudish C. Murthy, MD, PhD, Wayne Hofstetter, MD, Joseph B. Shrager, MD, Charles Bridges, MD, ScD, John D. Mitchell, MD, Rodney J. Landreneau, MD, Ellen R. Clough, PhD, and Thomas J. Watson, MD

© 2009 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons

Prophylaxis and Management of Atrial Fibrillation Associated With General Thoracic Surgery

The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Practice Guideline on the Prophylaxis and Management of Atrial Fibrillation Associated With General Thoracic Surgery: Executive Summary
Hiran C. Fernando, MD, Michael T. Jaklitsch, MD, Garrett L. Walsh, MD, James E. Tisdale, PhD, Charles D. Bridges, MD, ScD, John D. Mitchell, MD, and Joseph B. Shrager, MD

© 2011 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons


Congenital Heart Surgery

Protecting the Infant Brain During Cardiac Surgery

Protecting the Infant Brain During Cardiac Surgery: A Systematic Review
Jennifer C. Hirsch, MD, MS, Marshall L. Jacobs, MD, Dean Andropoulos, MD, Erle H. Austin, MD, Jeffrey P. Jacobs, MD, Daniel J. Licht, MD, Frank Pigula, MD, James S. Tweddell, MD, and J. William Gaynor, MD

© 2012 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons


STS Guideline Policies

STS Clinical Practice Guidelines are intended to assist physicians and other health care providers in clinical decision-making by describing a range of generally acceptable approaches for the diagnosis, management, or prevention of specific diseases or conditions. These guidelines should not be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other methods of care reasonably directed at obtaining the same results. Moreover, these guidelines are subject to change over time, without notice. The ultimate judgment regarding the care of a particular patient must be made by the physician in light of the individual circumstances presented by the patient.

STS Systematic Reviews are intended to compliment clinical practice guidelines in assisting physicians and other health care providers in clinical decision-making by evaluating the strength of evidence regarding particular treatments, and determining whether the level is sufficient enough to make recommendations for clinical practice. These reviews should not be considered inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of other methods of care reasonably directed at obtaining the same results. Moreover, these reviews are subject to change over time, without notice. The ultimate judgment regarding the care of a particular patient must be made by the physician in light of the individual circumstances presented by the patient.

STS Clinical Practice Guidelines may be printed or downloaded for individual and personal use only. Guidelines may not be reproduced in any print or electronic publication or offered for sale or distribution in any format without the express written permission of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons.